University Services provides Medical Review Officer (MRO) services for drug testing results. Our MROs are licensed physicians, certified as MROs. As the MRO, we act as a gatekeeper in the drug testing process, advocating for the integrity of drug testing programs. We receive results from the lab, review and interpret the lab results, explore valid medical explanations for non-negative results by interviewing donors, verify the results and report the final result determinations to clients (employers, third-party administrators (TPAs) and other agencies such as correction facilities and court-ordered testing). University Services provides expert MRO services for clients nationwide for both regulated and nonregulated testing programs. We have a team of 12 MROs that work with the MRO staff to ensure quality result reporting with the best possible turn-around time.

Depending on the industry, certain companies are required to abide by rules and regulations set forth by the DOT, specifically those that use professional drivers, specified safety-sensitive transportation and/or oil and gas-related occupations, and certain federal employers.

These employees are subject to drug and alcohol testing, including: 



    Amphetamines (Amphetamine, Methamphetamine and Ecstasy)

    Opioids (Codeine, Morphine and 6-Acetylmorphine (Heroin), Oxycodone, Oxymorphone, Hydrocodone, Hydromorphone)

    Phencyclidine (PCP)

While the federal guidelines only allow laboratories to report results for the official ‘Federal 5’ substances, many drug testing labs and on-site tests also offer a more comprehensive set of drug menus.

These tests can include:








    Synthetic opiates

Additionally, outside of federally-mandated drug testing programs, University Services is familiar with the proceedings that are required for court-ordered testing. Court-ordered tests are required by a judge or probation officer in family law, such as child custody cases. University Services is familiar with these proceedings, including hair or urine sample collections, as well as confidentially reporting the results for the parties involved.

Types of Tests

University Services provides a variety of drug testing solutions, whether it’s for securing workplaces or other testing needs. By taking advantage of our multiple testing methodologies and expanded drug panels, you’ll benefit from cutting-edge technology and best-in-class practices. Our types of drug tests include:

Hair Testing 

Hair tests can reflect drug use in an individual for six months or longer since drugs are incorporated into the hair shaft as the hair grows. Experienced collection facilities, such as University Services, take hair within 1.5 inches of the scalp and discard the rest. This limits the detection history to about 90 days, depending upon the rate of growth of the individual’s hair. Some individuals might attempt to circumvent a hair test by shaving their heads; in this case, body hair can be used as an acceptable substitute in the absence of the required amount of scalp hair.

Oral Fluid Testing 

Oral fluid (saliva) drug tests are difficult to adulterate and can generally detect drug use from a few minutes to about 48 hours. Saliva testing has also become more popular due to its efficacy in determining results of post-accident testing. It has been used to determine the presence of alcohol in the saliva and a relatively good approximation of blood alcohol content. Saliva tests provide samples that are acquired under direct observation, present a minimal risk of tampering, are non-invasive, and can detect alcohol use and recent drug abuse. When used in combination with another type of testing that provides longer detection windows, such as a urinalysis, oral-fluid testing can help eliminate detection window gaps and give a more encompassing look into drug use/abuse.

Sweat Testing 

Sweat tests are patches attached to the skin to collect sweat over a long period of time (10-14 days). These are almost exclusively used by child protective services, parole departments, and other government institutions concerned with drug use over long periods when urine testing is not practical. The patches have security features that keep them from being covertly removed and then reapplied without the knowledge of the testing agency. At the end of the test period, the patch is removed by a social worker or parole officer and sent to a lab for analysis. If the person has used any drugs during the period that the patch was in place, they will test positive for that drug. This type of testing has fallen out of favor with government agencies due to documented problems with certain drugs.


A urinalysis, or urine test, is one of the most common types of drug tests and shows the presence or absence of drug metabolites in a person’s urine. The sample should be sent for laboratory confirmation if the on-site test is positive. The lab typically performs a screening test using immunoassay analysis. This test is followed by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GCMS) for confirmation purposes if the screening test is positive.

The most common drugs tested in a urine sample include:

    Amphetamines (Amphetamine, Methamphetamine and Ecstasy)

    Cocaine metabolites

    Marijuana metabolites

    Opioids (Codeine, Morphine and 6-Acetylmorphine (Heroin), Oxycodone, Oxymorphone, Hydrocodone, Hydromorphone)

    Phencyclidine (PCP)

Individuals might attempt to cheat a urine test by drinking copious amounts of water. However, a sufficiently diluted sample can be detected by measuring specific gravity creatinine. If the sample fails to meet specific gravity and creatinine standards, the sample is reported as dilute. The urine specimen can even be reported as “Invalid” if the specific gravity and/or urine creatinine is very low. Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations require a recollection if the sample is invalid.

Substituted specimens are those that are inconsistent with normal human urine. Some individuals might try to add substances to the urine to mask the detection of drugs. Certain tests can be ordered to try to identify specific adulterants and ensure the tests that are collected are accurate.

For more information about our MRO services, contact University Services at (800) 624-3784 or visit our contact us page.